“Social transformation in FATA: Tribal Areas Rural-to-Urban Centre Conversion Initiative and Local Governance”

“Social transformation in FATA: Tribal Areas Rural-to-Urban Centre Conversion Initiative and Local Governance”
Muhammad Abid Majeed
*(written in end 2013-Jan 2014 as Research Paper)
Executive Summary
The areas inhabited by tribesmen on the north-west border of Pakistan, called the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, have been in the state of continued flux and uncertainty since the last over 130 years. Their geo-strategic location more a curse the tribesmen are governed as second-class citizens by the State of Pakistan even after independence under the colonial era Frontier Crimes Regulation, 1901. The Political Agent remains as mighty a demigod, if not more, as he was during the British times. Resultantly they are the most backward in Pakistan with abysmally low literacy rates, social indicators, poverty, infrastructure and service delivery.
However it is evident that fault lies not with the tribesmen but with the government’s efforts to treat them at par with any other Pakistani. Indicative is the fact that when the same tribesmen reside in any other area except FATA they are as contributive, mainstreamed and conscious citizens of that area as others. The best of scientists, academicians, civil servants, generals, ambassadors, sportspersons etc. have come out of the tribal areas. There is no dearth of talent and yearning to excel.
Since the turn of the Century sizable funds have been allocated to FATA by Federal Government as well as through donors’ initiatives. However, the funds have either been mis-spent or utilized in small schemes in rural areas with no visible impact. Resultantly, the government launched the TARUCCI initiative to provide urban facilities in the towns in FATA, induce urban migration and socially transform its people. However, over a period of around three years the successors in government have, seemingly, lost interest in the initiative with no formal oversight, absence of participatory approach and the least of allocation of funds for the purpose. Donors’ intervention is also not there.
Another essential of the initiative was the launch of local and participatory governance initiative in FATA starting from urban hubs. The draft law took two years to finalize and is now awaiting approval of the President of Pakistan since the last one year. The law also contains loopholes primarily due to the fact that it only caters to urban hubs through Municipal Committees and totally disregards the local government structure at the Agency, Tehsil and Union Council level. Also, the Governor enjoys arbitrary powers in the provisions contained in the draft law.
What is now required from the government is a serious effort towards actualizing the purposes of TARUCCI through allocation of substantial financial resources through its own coffers as well as foreign aid and consensus-based amendments in the draft law on local government to reflect the true aspirations of the people of FATA.
But what seems to be more required is for the government to develop a stand on what its strategy actually is towards FATA, its development and the future of its people. Without that, and apparently there is an absolute lack of direction and understanding in that regard at the highest level, the abject state of affairs in FATA would continue – leading to disastrous consequences in the not so distant future.

Glossary of Terms
Annual Development Plan
Deputy Commissioner Incharge of Frontier Region
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Frontier Crimes Regulation, 1901
Frontier Regions
FATA Secretariat
FATA Urban Centres Project
Financial Year
Internally Displaced Persons of FATA
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (formerly NWFP)
Local Council
Local Government
Draft Local Government Regulations for FATA submitted to the President of Pakistan under Article 247 of the Constitution
Municipal Committee
Multi Donors Trust Fund
Political Agent
Post Crisis Need Assessment for KP and FATA sponsored by World Bank
Pakistani Rupee
FATA Sustainable Development Plan (2006-15)
Tribal Areas Rural to Urban Centres Conversion Initiative
Town Committee
United States Dollars
United Nations Development
World Bank


Statement of Problem
Significance and scope of study
Review of Literature
Research Methodology
Organization of the Paper
Section 1 – Social Transformation in FATA
Section 2 –Tribal Areas Rural to Urban Centres Conversion Initiative
Section 3 – Local Governance in FATA


There is growing body of knowledge on social transformation and local governance. FATA is the poorest region of the country as it lags behind on almost all the socio-economic indicators as compared to others parts of the country. Tribal culture coupled with historical neglect and poor governance has led FATA to social and economic deprivation. FS launched TARUCCI to transform tribal society from within in 2009. FS also got drafted a local governance law in 2011, initially for the Urban Hubs to be established under the TARUCCI. The draft law was discussed with state-holders in two interactive sessions and then recommended for approval of the President under Article 247 of the Constitution.
However, since the last year or so there is a growing dissatisfaction expressed by inhabitants of FATA through various non-government and community organizations and the press regarding the pace and efficacy of measures taken by government to achieve participatory governance and social transformation. This paper strives to assess whether the government input is appropriately emphasized towards achieving that goal.
Statement of the Problem
Government’s intervention for social transformation of FATA through establishment of urban hubs and introduction of formal local governance may not be enough to socially transform FATA as envisaged.
Significance and Scope of the Study
Government’s initiative to replicate the social transformation essentials of urban environment with standard service delivery, enterprise development opportunities, employment avenues and signature development projects has been under TARUCCI – an urbanization concept never tried in FATA.
Furthermore, the system of administration over the last 120 years has not led to sustained development and peace building. A basic reason has been lack of popular participatory governance. The Political Agents have more been ruthless administrators at best where they should have been managers. The FATA LGR has been framed for that purpose and, if properly implemented, would create continuous and engrained stakes of the people in the State of Pakistan and its systems including a federal, parliamentary democracy.
Government has not launched any assessment or study to actually gauge effectiveness of its reforms program on the above accounts as well as the reforms carried out through amendments in the FCR as well as extension of the Political Parties Order to FATA. The present study is therefore an effort to carry out a detached situational analysis and arrive at implementation challenges, impediments and the fine tread line between the two. The study has been limited to the TARUCCI and any other initiative or support towards urbanization or development interventions in urban hubs in FATA.
Review of Literature
Frankly, there is not much literature on FATA let alone essences of social transformation or urbanization therein. Literature does cover its history and problems but when it comes to actual data, reliance has to be almost hundred percent on government sources. One reason could be that the area has been, in geographical blocks, not always accessible to the community and non-government organizations. Even in public sector data management FATA being not a province has not got the serious attention it deserved. Heavy reliance has therefore been made to the reports and documents of FATA Secretariat and World Bank, the latter more so on the subject of urbanization, disaster management through peace building efforts and the FUCP.
The referred to literature includes the FATA Sustainable Development Program, the TARUCCI concept booklet, the draft LGR FATA, the Annual Development Plans for FY 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13, reports and grant agreements of World Bank under the MDTF and other allied reports.
Most of the literature, in shape of reports and documents, has been obtained from FS and, only for reference purposes the official websites have been quoted. More often than not reference has been made to personal experience in directly dealing with matters related to FATA affairs in official capacity in past four and a half years backed up by citations to cover the requirements of research at Senior Management Wing.
Research Methodology
This is a qualitative and quantitative research, with emphasis on descriptive and analytical research methodology. To do justice with the subject of this research paper, every effort was made to reach relevant data sources both primary and secondary. The list of sources is enumerated in the bibliography segment. Research was based on the literature available in shape of reports as well as on the internet, especially on the FATA Secretariat website and other official websites. Furthermore, interviews of various officers in public sector and WB were taken on telephone and in face-to-face meetings. Experience of assignment in FATA Secretariat especially dealing with the nascent stage of both the reforms was also fully utilized.
Numeric Data available in the Annual Development Plans was painstakingly processed to bring out the required variables. This required going through allocation of each scheme in each sector in the last three Financial Years’ Plan to bifurcate schemes in the urban hubs and outside. Based on that data the concerned officers were asked about the utilization of funds as well as the utility of such expenditures.
Organization of the Paper
In order to deal with both the diverse subjects which are intertwined in not so visible parameters as well as the research methodology to be followed in the NSPP the paper starts with a preface and executive summary followed by ingredients of Introduction. The actual situational analysis has been divided into three sections.
The first section deals with the background of FATA, its social indicators and the rural urban divide. The second section starts with a brief primer to concept of urbanization in FATA, its merits, and goes on to elaborates the conceptual framework of TARUCCI, its financial requirements and the government’s and donors’ efforts towards that end. The third section deals with local governance, the existing MCs in FATA and their issues and culminates on the write up on draft Regulation for LG in FATA now awaiting assent of the President. The provisions of the proposed law have also been compared with the LG law of KP and Punjab.
The paper focuses thereafter on a conclusion followed by recommendations on the best way, in my opinion, to take the reforms forward. The effort is culminated with the bibliography and appendices.
Best attempt has been made to keep the flow as consequential and simple as possible to build argument in an easily understandable way.

Section – 1 Social transformation in FATA
1.1 Historical background
During the British Raj in Indian sub-continent, apprehension towards what they perceived as the expansionist policies of Tzarist Russia in the late 19th and early 20th Century compelled the English to launch two wars on Afghanistan, during 1839-42 and 1878-79 with the Pashtun tribal belt caught in the middle of the confrontation. As a result of the latter war most of the Pashtun tribal belt was brought under control but the British were abundantly clear that they required their route to Kabul safe as against extending strict administrative and legal jurisdiction on the tribesmen.  After the British forced King Abdur Rahman of Afghanistan to accept the Durand Line Agreement in 1893, the Pashtuns inhabiting tribal region were divided into two parts controlled by the opposing forces of Afghanistan and then India. The Pashtun tribes, who always resisted control from outside, were granted autonomy in running their internal affairs and were governed by the Frontier Crimes Regulation, 1901 promulgated by the British, through appointed Political Agents and maliks, or headmen, appointed in various tribes through internal mechanism. FCR was not exclusive to FATA but was also extended to Gilgit-Baltistan in the North, the Malakand Division which is now the Provincially Administered Tribal Area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Province of Baluchistan. However it still remains in effect in FATA alone.
“Despite these efforts, bolstered by repeated military campaigns, the colonial administration retained what was at best a tenuous hold on the area until the British quit India in 1947. Soon after Independence, the various tribes in the region entered into an agreement with the government of Pakistan, pledging allegiance to the newly created state. Some 30 instruments of accession were subsequently signed, cementing this arrangement. To the tribal agencies of Khyber, Kurram, North Waziristan and South Waziristan were later added Mohmand Agency (in 1951), and Bajaur and Orakzai (in 1973)”. The agreements continue the separate administrative setup in FATA and the FCR which defines riwaj, customs built around Jirga and Pakhtunwali, the ten-points code, as the basis of their collective behavior. Successive governments thereafter left FATA to its own devices, leaving its people as a sociological curiosity and considering them as beyond the pale of Pakistan.[1] This continued indifference to the development needs of FATA till the 2000s have left it with the worst socio-economic indicators in the area and a scattered, rural population whose development needs cannot be satiated with the developmental interventions more so due to their thin spread. Before 2006 informally, and 2007 formally, the affairs of FATA were dealt by the Federal Government through the provincial government Departments of KP where separate FATA ‘Sections’ existed to oversee FATA Directorates. FATA always got the lower end of priority. It was in 2007 that FATA Secretariat was established as Local Area Authority for FATA under direct control of the Governor, giving him executive authority over FATA, that a specialized interface was recognized for the problems and issues of the tribesmen.
1.2 Important social indicators
The boundaries of FATA have been defined under Article 246 of the Constitution. The mostly harsh, mountainous terrain comprises of seven ‘political agencies’ and six smaller zones, called ‘frontier regions’. Only 21.4 percent of the overall population is literate with female literacy at 3 percent.[2]Only 21 percent of all girls are in school while more than half of all children who begin primary school leave before they complete class V.[3]There is just one health facility for every 50 square kms area. Access to reproductive health care is extremely limited [4]and infant mortality is estimated to be high, at 87 deaths per 1,000 live births, while maternal mortality is thought to be greater than 600 deaths per 100,000 live births.[5] Just 10 percent of the population has access to adequate sanitation. Results from 1998 Housing Census show that 37 percent of houses in FATA have “separate” latrines while 56 per cent have no latrines at all.[6]
While FATA’s economy is based on agriculture it is only at the subsistence level. Less than 9 percent of the total geographic area is cultivated. Only 38.15 percent is under irrigation while the remaining farms rely exclusively on rainfall. While yields per hectare for rice and maize are slightly lower than national figures, the yield per hectare for wheat in FATA is just 38 per cent of the national average.[7]Road density in FATA is low, at 0.17 kilometers per square kilometre of area, compared to the national average of 0.26 kilometers. The per capita government funded development investment in FATA (Rs. 905/- or US$ 11.30) stands very low against the national per capita government funded development investment (Rs. 2044/- or US$ 25.55). [8]
A comparison of select human development indicators for Pakistan, KP and FATA as follows, highlights the extremely poor indicators of FATA as under:*
Literacy (both sexes percent)
Male literacy
Female literacy
Population per doctor
Population per bed in hospitals
Road ( per square km)
*Literacy rates according to 1998 census; all other figures for 2003
It is evident that with the FATA ADP hovering in billions since last 6 plus years, there is a clear imbalance between the funds spent and the development actually taking place on ground. This could be attributed to several factors including wrong selection of schemes, thin spread of resources, corruption in civil work, mismanagement and lack of will of important stakeholders to change the fate of FATA and its people.
1.3 Rural-Urban Divide
The Housing Census conducted during beginning of March 1998 indicates the extreme rural pattern of settlements in FATA. Out of the total 341114 houses, 38.62 percent have walls in baked bricks, blocks, or stones. Rest are kacha walls of mud. In roof construction, only 6.32 percent have cement blocks, Reinforced Concrete Cement or iron sheets. Only 19 percent have piped water, in rural areas potable water from wells is available to 35.1 percent of the houses. 30 percent of all houses depend on kerosene oil for lighting purposes while as a cooking fuel ‘wood’ is used in 92 percent of the houses. In urban areas it is 84.7 percent and in rural areas 91.9 percent of houses utilize wood as fuel. [10][11]
Similarly, the recorded data of urban-rural divide in FATA, as in below table (in thousands), also shows that the ratio to rural to urban population is 5:1 and there has been no significant movement towards urban areas in FATA over a period of half a century: [12]
As has been pointed out in introduction and review of literature the data on FATA is mostly inaccurate or there are visible discrepancies. In the above statement while the 1972 data shows urban population as 13000 the 1981 data puts it at zero while it shoots up to an unbelievable 1.5 Mil in 1998 census – unbelievable in the sense that against the trend so many people are classified to be living in urban areas. 
The rural-urban divide is more emphasized in the comparison of the urban-rural divide in the whole country as per 1998 Census, as detailed below: [13]
Area in Sq km
Population (in 000)
Density (persons per sq km)
Urban Population (percentage)
Another factor contributing to the divide has been the perpetual phenomenon of Internally Displaced Persons of FATA. With military action in Bajaur and Mohmand, most of the families in the affected areas became IDPs in adjoining districts. Mehsud IDPs are still lodged in Tank and DI Khan as a consequence of military action to dislodge militants in South Waziristan three years back. There has been a cross and inter-agency movement. With family sizes in FATA averaging eight individuals, there is a lack of data on how many of these IDPs went back and did some of them retain themselves in urban areas of KP for economic reasons. Nowshera, Peshawar, Mardan, DI Khan and Charsadda have taken the brunt of IDPs (72 percent of the overall) and IDPs from FATA have gone even upto Karachi to seek protection and gainful employment. [14]
Section – 2 Tribal Areas Rural to Urban Centres Conversion Initiative
2.1 Towards Urbanization – TARUCCI
It was in these circumstances that the FATA administration decided on social transformation through urbanization. “Yet there remains a sense that FATA is still treated as a geo-political space, frozen in time, rather than a part of Pakistan where its citizens live.[15]Social transformation of FATA from a scattered Rural-Tribal society to a more urbanized, cosmopolitan and progressive society is being undertaken through establishment of urban centres at selected high population density areas providing increased access to planned housing, quality education and health care, municipal services, diverse economic opportunities for trade and employment, social recreation and security.” [16]
The TARUCCI concept basically rests on the creation of embryo urban hubs attracting tribesmen towards city life and progressive introduction of land settlement. In housing sector residential areas for government employees, commercial areas, space for private housing and recreational areas have been included with proper building codes. In health sector hospitals with Specialists, trauma centres and proper waste management has been included with specialized services through public private partnership. This is to be backed up with FATA Institute of Medical Sciences with a Medical College and Nursing and Paramedic Training Institutes. In education sector, quality English medium boarding schools and colleges have been included with a FATA University and Virtual University planned. Technical Education includes up-gradation of existing polytechnic institutes in Colleges of Technology and a proper skill development initiative.
Local Industries have been proposed to be strengthened for enterprise development at the urban hub and resultant job creation. Local Industries use the strength of that particular area, be it marble in primarily Mohmand, Bajaur and Khyber Agencies, coal in FR DI Khan, mizzery products, trout farming and fruits in Kurram Agency, dry fruit and bus body making in the Waziristans etc. Value addition at the hub instead of down country is also planned. This is planned to be augmented with trade gateways from FATA to Afghanistan and properly planned human and goods transport system. This also includes custom clearing houses and immigration facilities at these corridors. Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock hinge on modeling farms including seed farms, fruit orchards, broiler and layer farms, dairy farms and calf fattening farms.
Salient features of implementation include the stated fact that financial implications would be mitigated as 20 percent of the schemes are already included in FATA ADP which has been re-oriented towards TARUCCI and by the fact that education and health institutions already exist in these urban hubs and need only to be upgraded. Commercial infrastructure such as bus terminals, fruit and vegetable markets etc. can be through public private partnership and phased over 5-7 years period. Special emphasis is on energy sector with development of alternate and eco-friendly energy and women empowerment initiatives.
The Implementation framework includes an Oversight Committee headed by the Governor KP and a Steering Committee headed by the ACS (FATA) with a Project Management and Implementation Unit. [17]As an afterthought seemingly establishment of model ‘Dar ul Ulums’ has also been included to integrate religious education with formal education. One Dar ul Alum has been planned for each hub. [18]
The plan was also considered at Wilton Park and its report states: “The KP Governor’s proposal for a program of Tribal Areas Rural-to-Urban Centres Conversion Initiative (TARUCCI) provides an interesting response to problems of access to public services. It encourages tribal people to move from remote rural areas into more concentrated population centres, or urban hubs, to benefit from improved facilities and services invested there. Some donors have already indicated a willingness to support components of the program although further technical and feasibility studies are required first.” [19]
2.2 Financial Management within FATA Development Framework
FATA’s development portfolio has historically been influenced by local elites in shape of Maliks and Parliamentarians. However, in 2006 the FATA Sustainable Development Plan 2006-15 (SDP) [20] was framed to provide a larger merit based picture and as a response to the drivers of the on-going conflict. Post Crisis Needs Assessment was also carried out in 2010. [21]
The FATA SDP, with total outlay of US $ 2.0 billion spread over a period of nine year, targeted sectors of human development, natural resources, communication and infrastructure, and economic development. PCNA was carried out for KP and FATA by the Federal Government in in partnership with World Bank, Asian Development Bank, European Commission and United Nations. PCNA, a peace building strategy, is responding to the drivers of conflict through four strategic objectives including to build responsiveness of the state for restoring citizen’s trust, stimulate employment and livelihood opportunities and ensure early delivery of basic services.
Under TARUCCI a financial implications analysis based on present facilities and net requirement to upgrade them to the standards determined was carried out. A statement on sites selected for these urban hubs with cost analysis of required infrastructure and inputs on the indicated sectors based on locational and economic advantage, including present and future capacities for trade and commerce is added as Appendix-I. In total, up-gradation of the eleven sectors of Education, Technical Education, Health, Livestock & Dairy Development, Forestry, Municipal Services, Local Industry, Minerals, Agriculture, Public Health and Housing across the planned fourteen urban hubs to the standards notified for urbanization are estimated cost of around Rs 33000 Million as per chart below (PKR in Mil): [22]
Pertinently, one of the foundations for arguing financial viability of the initiative by the Government is that FATA ADP is already aligned towards urban growth.[23]The Government’s development interventions in the last three Financial Years towards increased urbanization under the TARUCCI can be gauged from comparison of ADP allocation in the important sectors of Education, Health, technical education and local government including improving municipal services.
Comparative statement investment on urban hubs [24]
FY 2011-12
FY 2012-13
FY 2013-14
In Urban
In Urban
percent Age
In Urban
No of Schemes
Allocation (in Mil)
No of schemes
Allocation (in Mil)
Technical Education
No of schemes
Allocation (in Mil)
Livestock and Dairy Dev
No of Schemes
Allocation (In Mil)
Local Govt & Rural Dev
No of Schemes
Allocation (In Mil)
The above assessment indicates that in Education, Health and Livestock sectors FATA administration continues to thin spread the resources in small, diversely located schemes in the periphery instead of the urban hubs. It is only in technical education where smaller institutes cannot be established in the rural areas that the contribution looks significant but is a clear case of Hobson’s choice. Local Government fares the worst. Despite the paradigm shift towards Municipal Administration, only around 20 percent of the total funds are being allocated to establishment of Municipal Services.
As a case in point when education and health are taken as sample sectors, and the requirement of urbanization are set at Rs 4684.3 and Rs 11724.5 Mil respectively – at the present pace and size of allocation at Rs 966.6 Mil and Rs 466.1 Mil it will take 10 and 25 years respectively to achieve the goal of provision of urban facilities. This calculation is less inflation and other factors. It can therefore be deduced that while urbanization may have been a priority on papers the system of allocation of funds has not been re-oriented towards it properly. Small schemes in the periphery where civil work cannot be monitored and ensured properly and human resource goes unchecked are still being reflected in the ADP – purportedly on the whims of Parliamentarians. Even the FATA ADP for FY 2013-14 allocates Rs 50 Mil each to every Parliamentarian, Rs 434.3 Mil under Governor’s Directive in 27 schemes. Pitching the ADP at around Rs 12 Billion, this direct allocation coming to 1.4 billion is 12 percent of the ADP. These are over and above the schemes indicated in each sector by MNAs and Senators from FATA where it is a perception that the Parliamentarians and their blue-eyed contractors are the beneficiaries [25] and schemes ostensibly classified as “all FATA” schemes. This is more so excessive when the FATA ADP has seen a significant increase since last 5 years. In FY 2007-08 the allocation for FATA was Rs 6600 Mil, Rs 7616 Mil in FY 2008-09, Rs 10350 Mil in FY 2009-10, Rs 12514 Mil in FY 2010-11, Rs 13072 Mil in FY 2011-12 and Rs 13003 Mil in FY 2012-13.
2.3 Response of Donors and International Community
The plan was quite often presented to donors including the US, British and German organizations. While USAID initially showed interest, its limited envelope had other strategic schemes in waiting so any formal flow of funds has not been forthcoming. Under the German Debt for Development Swap–V (2010-13) three state of the art hospitals in 3 urban hubs including up-gradation in Landikotal and Wana and construction of new Agency Headquarter hospital in Orakzai Agency are underway. [26][27]
WB initiated support to TARUCCI under the MDTF. MDTF was established in 2010 for KP, FATA and Baluchistan as one of the key instruments to support the reconstruction, rehabilitation, reforms and other interventions needed to build peace and create the conditions for sustainable development in the aftermath of the 2009 crisis.  The MDTF is administered by the World Bank and supported by eleven donors – Australia, Denmark, European Union, Finland, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Turkey, UK, and the USA. [28]However, only a small segment in Bajaur is being supported pertinently based on the fact that urbanization has also been shown as panacea to post-conflict sustainable peace requirement. [29]
Urban economies play a key role in recovery after war. The economic role of cities in generating post-conflict recovery has been emphasized by a study conducted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and UNDP.[30]The World Bank is also of the opinion that Government policy is more towards urban development following conflict instead of building new cities. The population internally displaced moves towards large urban centres where they acquire prolonged exposure to the services, civic amenities, and general peacefulness. This makes it harder for the IDPs to return to their rural areas of origin, more so due to loss of infrastructure, economic livelihoods formerly available, and the gradual, drawn-out and difficult rehabilitation and recovery period that is expected on return. The urban centres should therefore be developed as instruments to facilitate sustainable recovery through better infrastructure and services, particularly education and health and expectations of new inhabitants regarding jobs and livelihoods. A vibrant local economy is one of the key elements in sustainable recovery and development.
Similarly, in order to reduce vulnerability and ensure crisis mitigation, good urban governance is critically required. Such governance should be based on equity, efficiency, transparency, civic engagement and security. Truly participatory local and national governments able to address issues in the post conflict phase are a critical element in the development of sustainable relief strategies. Spatial Planning and Development of Housing Sector become essential with rights of ownership in urban areas especially those acquired by DPs. Policy should include the key elements of protecting the land and property rights of displaced persons, and developing longer term solutions for land and property dispute resolution. [31]
However, the WB’s intervention under the MDTF has only been limited to providing solar lights in one of the fourteen proposed urban hubs. At such a pace it will take a lifetime to get anything meaningful out of this initiative.
2.4 FATA Urban Centres Project
A Project Agreement was signed between the World Bank and FATA Secretariat on 12 April 2012 with closing date as 30 June 2015 for grant proceeds of US$ 7.0 Mil for FUCP. The object of the project is to improve urban services and management in Khar, Bajaur Agency and develop a framework for urban management in rest of the planned urban hubs in FATA. The project consists of Priority Infrastructure investments including rehabilitation, reconstruction, expansion and upgrading of urban municipal infrastructure and services such as water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, street lights, drains, roads, fire fighting and a general bus terminal, in Khar, through the acquisition of goods and the carrying out of works for which US $ 6.0 Million have been allocated. It also includes US$ 1.0 Million as Technical Assistance and Implementation Support for design and development of an overall urban management frame-work for FATA, including development of a conceptual framework, an implementation roadmap and guidelines in relations to areas such as structural and spatial planning and demarcation of urban boundaries, strengthening of institutional structures such as FS and development of communications strategy. [32]
WB has prepared an Environmental and Social Screening and Assessment Framework (ESSAF) and an ESMP has been prepared in pursuance of the environmental and social assessment requirements defined in the ESSAF.[33]A Grievance Redressal and Complaint Handling Mechanism is a part of this ESMP. [34]To ensure participatory approach to the project a Jirga was also held in Bajaur, attended by the public, elders, Parliamentarians from the area including the then Minister SAFRON as well as other stake-holders. [35][36]
Officers with vast experience of service in FATA generally say that migration of tribals from lesser-developed areas towards urban centers may present mixed trends in each agency. While in northern part of FATA, comprising Mohmand, Bajaur and Khyber agencies, more people are likely to migrate; trend in southern agencies may be different. In search of better lives for their families, many Tribal of northern FATA have already migrated to cities like Peshawar and Charsadda being in closer geographical proximity to these agencies. Following the trend, large segment of rural population from these agencies would also like to take their families, where they could have a better living. However, increased cost of life in bigger cities is probably the principle reason for preventing them for doing so. In case urban centres are established within the agencies, there is every likelihood that this segment of rural population migrates towards these urban centers, where their families could have benefits of an urban town at a relatively lower cost while being nearer to their areas of origin.
There is another significant segment of the tribal society, which would like to migrate to bigger towns, however, adoption of an entirely new culture prevents them from doing so. This segment of the society is likely to migrate to the urban centres within FATA as they would avail facilities of urban centres remaining in their own cultural environment. Furthermore, awareness level for provision of education and other modern day facilities to the children and other members of the family is much higher in these agencies being in closer geographical proximity to the bigger cities as earlier mentioned. Establishment of urban centers would surely persuade that segment of the population, which would like to avail benefits of an urban town; and for now mere non-availability of any choice prevents them from doing so. [37]


Section – 3 Local Governance in FATA
3.1 Evolution of Local Government in Sub-continent
The first municipal corporation was set-up in Madras in 1688 by the East India Company. [38]In 1842, the Conservancy Act led to the formation of sanitary committees for garbage disposal in Bengal Presidency. In Karachi, the Board of Conservancy was established in 1846, while in Lahore and Rawalpindi, the Municipal Act was passed in 1867. The 1935 Government of India Act allowed provincial autonomy and permitted provinces to frame legislation on local government systems. [39]
After 1947 the military government ruling for the period 1958 to 1969 developed an extensive elected system of local government in the shape of Basic Democracies System. The system provided for a new local government system across the country through which members were elected. In urban areas, town committees were set up for towns having a population of less than 14,000. Under the Basic Democracies Ordinance of 1959, urban areas were defined as areas under the jurisdiction of a municipal body or any other area that the government could declare as an urban area. Town committees were expected to perform 37 functions ranging from measures for promotion of social welfare and health to the maintenance of infrastructural facilities. These committees could also levy taxes on 29 items that included vehicles and trade.
General Zia’s regime implemented elected local governments through the 1979 law under which there are four levels of municipal government in the urban areas: town committees, municipal committees, municipal corporations and metropolitan corporations. The Rural Urban divide was abolished in the Local Government Ordinance of 2001. Now the provinces have brought out their laws in 2013 and elections, already conducted in Baluchistan, are expected in rest of the provinces within the next couple of months.
3.2 Municipal Committees in FATA
Municipal Committees, as Town Committees, were introduced in three urban hubs in FATA in the early 1960s. The Town Committee Sadda, Kurram Agency was to have 7 Members to be nominated by Collector in consultation with Jirgas with the tribes living in the Town and with APA Sadda as ex-officio Chairman. [40]The Town Committee Parachinar was formed as a successor of Bazaar Fund Commitee Parachinar [41]and Town Committee Miranshah was formed in 1964. These Town Committees have established properties in shape of shops and small houses to utilize their rent as revenue and, while providing rudimentary street lighting as well as garbage disposal, they collect very minor contribution from the shopkeepers and residents. An example of the state of affairs is that the rent for shops and houses in Parachinar, now a prime locality as far as FATA is concerned, is still the Rs 25 and Rs 150 per month it used to be around two decades back.
These Town Committees have been in perpetual problems during the last decade, primarily due to lack of proper administrative setup, human resource, financial discipline and revenue generation opportunities. The foremost cause is that these were formed during one-Unit days and on revival of Province of the then NWFP (now KP), FATA not being part thereof, these TCs lost structured support. Octroi was their main source of revenue. The octroi and zilla tax were abolished in 1998 through a resolution of Inter-Provincial Coordination Committee (IPCC). Following abolition of octroi, the government increased rate of general sales tax from 12.5 to 15 per cent. The proceeds of 2.5 percent sales tax were given to the provinces as compensation for the loss of octroi revenue. [42]FATA was not given this compensation. In fact, FATA’s demand for allocation of Rs 70.270 Mil annually in lieu of abolition of octroi was declared unjustified. [43]With octroi gone and very meager resources the MCs provide less and less services while their liabilities increase manifold nearly each year.
With the piling up of liabilities on account of pay of staff and reduction of services only to street lights and sanitation in main bazars in Parachinar alone, Federal Government granted a one time reprieve in shape of Rs 33.720 Mil in FY 2009-2010 to alley the financial liabilities of the Committee. However, even after that only for Town Committee Sadda the shortfall is piling up @ Rs 2.9 Mil annually. It was decided by FATA Secretariat on 11.5.2010 that octroi and sanitation staff will be let go, no vacant posts towards Local Council Board staff would be filled and all daily wages workers terminated.[44]Presently, including Parachinar, all three Town Committees are dysfunctional.
Meanwhile, with the approval of Governor KP, FATA Secretariat has notified the 14 Agency and Tehsil headquarters identified for urbanization under TARUCCI as Municipal Committees under administrative arrangements. The Urban Growth Boundary has been set at 25 sq. km with the exact villages to be notified. The system proposed an elected MC with a transition and bridging period through a nominated one for an initial period of 3 years. It also included progress towards clear identification and delineation of revenue sources, assets, expenditure heads, proper accounting system and human resource structure. Till the time the Chairman was to be elected, Political Agent was to act as Chairman.[45]However, framing of by-laws, proper service structure and delimitation of wards for elections have not had any worthwhile progress. If the FS has seriously proposed extension of local government law to FATA it should already have dived head long in the delimitation process.
Furthermore, in the last three years, out of an allocation of Rs 576.4 Mil for Local Government and Rural Development only 122.1 Mil have been allocated to strengthening and improvement of Municipal services including provision of water, drains, sanitation, streetlights, fire-brigades and roads which fall under the umbrella of Municipal services in all Agencies of FATA. In that amount too, except for two fire brigades being purchased under Governor’s Directives, no expenditure has been made on that account also. [46]It has to be noted that all Parliamentarians get funds from Prime Minister under the Tameer-e-watan program for rural development. With the focus on urbanization and municipal governance it would have been more advisable to spend the total allocation in this sector on provision of service oriented infrastructure, logistics and human resource for MCs.
3.3 Draft Local Government Regulation 2012
During this time, parallel to the extension of Political Parties Order to FATA and the amendments in FCR 1901 in 2012 as part of reforms package a number of other laws were also extended to FATA in addition to around 130 already applicable there. [47]Most notable amongst these are the Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance, 1961, the Companies Ordinance, 1984, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997, The Higher Education Commission Ordinance, 2002 and The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan Act, 1997. The people of FATA themselves started demanding a local governance system like the rest of the country.
Therefore, a need was felt at the Governor’s and FS’s level that proper legislative instrument is required for FATA to introduce local governance mechanism, in a phased manner, to the urban hubs and beyond. This would have also taken care of the archaic arrangements in the three existing MCs.
As an initial step a draft law was framed and placed before a consultative meeting with FATA Parliamentarians on “FATA Local Government Regulation 2012” on 2 Aug 2012 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa House Islamabad. [48]The Parliamentarians were informed that the law would introduce local self-governance at grass root level and be a paradigm shift from patriarchal to participatory approach in decision making. The LGs would complement fata reforms process and provide nurseries for future leadership. The draft framed proper qualifications for would-be councilors, had a standard term of 4 years, provided for reserved seats for under-privileged, election of Chairman and Vice Chairman through individual votes and a proper Election Commission. Compulsory functions of MCs included public health, sanitation, garbage removal, water supply, drainage, food and drinks, markets and slaughter houses, animals and cattle, education, public safety, urban planning and building control, streets and traffic, sports and cultural activities. Finances included public fund – all grants and taxes (property tax, other taxes, cess, fees and fines), special fund – on direction of governor for special purposes etc. and importantly use of property could only be for public purposes and property could not be alienated.
Most importantly, Sec 1 sub-section (3) of the draft LGR 2012 provides that “It shall come into force on such date as the Governor may, by notification in the official gazette determine, and different dates and areas may be notified for different provisions of this Regulation”. [49]This provision is to phase-wise implement even the individual provisions of law to various earmarked areas in FATA catering to the requirements of formation of wards and bringing in a culture of payment of local taxes for acquiring municipal services.[50] However KP, where the Local Government law has been in existence since 1979 and was followed by LGO 2001 and LG Act 2012, has also made such a provision in its LG Act 2013. [51]It is not clear why did KP require such a provision in its law. Similar provision has actually also been provided in the Punjab law. [52]
In the KP law “local council” has been defined as a District Council, Tehsil Council, Town Council, Village Council or, as the case may be, Neighbourhood Council. However in the draft Regulation for FATA the only definition of Local Council is a Municipal Committee of a Town so declared. While the KP Law has the nomenclature of ‘Nazim’ and ‘Naib Nazim’ at the helm of affairs in LGs the equivalent nomenclature in FATA has been designated as ‘Chairman’ and ‘Vice Chairman’. The Punjab LG law also contains the nomenclature of ‘Chairman’ at the District level except the Metropolitan Corporation, which is headed by a Mayor aided by a Deputy Mayor. The Punjab’s law also contains a provision with clear distinction between a rural and urban area, and the resultant LG structure. However the FATA as well as the KP law does not make any such distinction. 
In the KP law action against the Nazim is staggered into first suspension and then removal, that too where the Local Government Commission submits a report to the Chief Minister after due inquiry. In the draft LG Regulation for FATA the powers of removal are vested in Government with the review against such orders also lying before him. The Governor may even suspend or dismiss a Local Council after a Committee comprising three Senators and three MNAs from FATA and two officers of his choice submit a report to him under Section 89 of the draft law. Punjab’s provisions towards similar ends have a novel approach wherein under sub-section (3) of Section 64 of its LG Act of 2013 the provincial government may delegate any powers of the Chairman or the Mayor to their deputies on the recommendations of the Local Government Commission through a simple notification.
The KP law empowers the provincial government to make bye-laws for LGs.  However the FATA draft law authorizes the LC to make such bye-laws for itself. The KP law, in its Section 52, constitutes a high level and powerful Provincial Finance Commission to make recommendations to the provincial government on the amount of grant for local governments out of the proceeds of Provincial Consolidated Fund in a financial year. Section 82 of the draft FATA law provides that the Governor may constitute a Local Councils Finance Committee to examine demand and apportion, on rational basis, share of each municipal committee from public funds, as well as from other sources. This Committee is to then submit its recommendations to the Governor for his approval.
The draft FATA LG Regulation contains transitional provisions such as interim authorities, interim maintenance of institutions, interim budget etc. However, while its Schedules include the functions and taxes etc. it is essentially silent on the devolved offices to the LG, primarily as the whole law is based on setting up MCs and not Agency Councils equivalent to District Councils. Punjab’s law, on the other hand, in quite an interesting manner, takes control of one of the primary functions of the LGs through establishment of District Education and District Health Authorities where the provincial government is to appoint technocrat members of the Authorities as well as their Chairmen and Vice Chairmen. [53]It, however, also contains provisions for transitional interim authorities, maintenance of institutions, budget etc.
The justifications of extension of the law include that it will arrest migration out of FATA due to deterioration in law and order situation, improve services in health and education by creating islands of excellence and fulfill the security needs of a population concentration zone much more efficiently. It also argued that the per capita cost of providing services is lower in urban areas or concentrated population areas, and we should encourage agglomeration. The tribal character of ancient population will also change and bring integration and pluralism. This will lead to fostering Pakistani nationalism. The tribal structure and local Jirga will be diluted, with better laws holding sway over those urban areas. That will lead to development of institutions.

After due consultation the Governor has recommended the draft LGR to the President of Pakistan under the provisions of Article 247 of the Constitution where it is awaiting assent to become law. It is also pertinent to mention that since the beginning of 2013 not a single initiative has been taken by FS to either push for the approval of the Regulation or at least galvanize public support in the right places towards achievement of that end. It has been reported that all stakeholders are not in agreement to this endeavor, pointing towards the headquarters in Rawalpindi.
The Political Parties Joint Committee on FATA Reforms established in 2010, comprising Awami National Party, Jamaat e Islami, Mutahida Qaumi Movement, National Party, Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan Muslim League (N), Pakistan Peoples Party and Qaumi Watan Party has carried out detailed assessment of the draft LGR and has observed that Governor’s powers to dissolve local councils are not actual devolution of political, administrative and financial powers. Instead of area by area implementation of the Regulation the local government system should be extended to all FATA. 18 percent of local council seats should be reserved for women, Local government elections should be held on a political party basis and Local councils should approve all development projects.[54]However, the government has, neither at the Governor’s nor at FS level, engaged such an important forum for further deliberations.


It is evident from the study that the politico-socio-economic reforms and development policy of the government is rudderless and plagued with confusions running right across the vertical hierarchy in the government. Nobody knows how to go about giving equal rights to people of FATA. The worst possible social indicators for an area which has been in the limelight since 1979, and has been ruthlessly used for great games across the border, reveals a state of abject apathy of those in power towards the people of FATA who so joyously and willingly joined the state of Pakistan. It is more so unfortunate that the primary pillars of society in FATA, of rewaj and pashtunwali, have been used as an argument against change in status quo and of absolution from all responsibilities.
FATA’s constitutional status as a special area under the control of the Federal Government merited complete and meaningful attention in the welfare of its people but by following the archaic FCR and a direct control policy the government has infact frozen it as a showcase in a timeline in the past. Now, with the reduction of Federal Government’s financial portfolio under the National Finance Commission Award, and the dependence of finances of FATA on the Federal Government being its area of jurisdiction, there is genuine fear that meaningful development funds would be still harder to get.
The rural-urban divide in FATA evidently points towards the lack of commitment of successive governments to provide quality living standards to the people who are otherwise quite conducive to peace and development in the rest of the country and even as immigrants in other developing and developed countries where they are tax paying citizens interested in acquiring education for their children including the girl child.
Efforts to urbanize the society in FATA through TARUCCI have not been seriously handled. The concept was conceived at the highest level by the then Governor aided by bureaucrats without any consultation with the people or their elected representatives, albeit it being in public interest. This lack of demand driven approach has obviously been unable to build public pressure on the subsequent government(s) to fully support it. With the allocation of around 25 percent of the ADP resources to all important service delivery sectors in the urban hubs it will take over two decades at the present rate to raise the envisaged facilities. The thin spread of resources continues to discourage people from coming to these urban hubs including the golden opportunity of resettlement of the IDPs in these areas on their return from camps.
This is exacerbated with the fact that neither the Oversight Committee of TARUCCI nor its Steering Committee has held formal meetings since the last 18 plus months. The Urban Management Framework, which should have been developed at the very on-set of the initiative, is now being framed with the assistance of the WB. However, with a meager allocation under the FUCP and with only street lights provided for in one of the hubs, i.e. Khar of Bajaur Agency, it seems too little and that too, too late. It also points out to the fact that the genuine interest shown by donor organizations initially and not subsequently backed up by actual financial commitments is more to do with less than meaningful efforts of FATA administration to stimulate their interest in this all important initiative.
The draft Regulation for LGs in FATA have only concentrated on one area; the provision of municipal services in urban hubs within 25 square kilometers. The most critical essentials of an Agency setup of LG followed by a Tehsil and Union Council set up have been overlooked. It could have been the basis of a uniform development of all areas and actual devolution of power to the elected representatives at the Agency level in contrast to the political administration still calling the shots in the whole of Agency except the urban growth boundary.
The law contains inherent dichotomies. The Governor’s powers to suspend or dismiss the whole LC at his whims or on the recommendations of the Parliamentarians who themselves have separate stakes at that level, renders the system meaningless, or at best a continuity of what is directed from the top instead of a grass-root level approach towards development and problems’ resolution. The collective wisdom of the political parties and their support to introduction of local governance in FATA, is yet to be tapped by the FATA administration.
Most pertinently even if, despite the reservations of the stakeholders in khaki, the President approves the law there is no preliminary homework on ground. The LG sector is being allocated less than 20 percent in ADP, existing MCs are running in perpetual losses and are practically non-existent, the methodology for delimitations of wards etc. has not been initiated, structure and by-laws for LGs have not been worked upon and there is no focal point in the efforts of FATA Administration. At best the Governor’s Secretariat, Parliamentarians and FATA Secretariat are oblivious to the pre-requisites for implementation of the all important initiative of social transformation of FATA through establishment of urban hubs and provision of local governance to the people.


The Federal Government has to initiate serious, sustained and meaningful initiatives to correct the situation in FATA. It has to treat FATA at par with the provinces by allocating special funds towards development of FATA for which program has already been indicated in the FATA Sustainable Development Plan as well as TARUCCI. Funds may be earmarked with a special provision in the National Finance Commission Award on the pattern of award of 1 percent of the total funds to KP as FATA has been worst hit than KP due to militancy. Similarly FATA should be declared a separate province to entitle it to have a share formally under the Award.
The reforms launched through introduction of Political Parties Order as well as amendments in the FCR should be backed with further reforms by extension of more laws to FATA to bring its people at par with people of the rest of the country and a gradual move from the FCR to the normal laws of the land. For this purpose the institution of grand Jirga should be initiated to finalize a road-map towards making FATA at par with the settled areas including the administrative, financial, legislative, political and judicial changes required. A definite timeline should be indicated as the deadline for change of status of FATA.
The initiatives under TARUCCI have to be owned at the highest level. The Governor and FATA Secretariat must ensure that the meetings of the Oversight Committee as well as the Steering Committee are held quarterly and other stake-holders including opinion leaders, notables, journalists etc. are also invited to these meetings to develop consensus and support.
At least 70 percent of the ADP should be allocated to initiatives under TARUCCI to fast track urbanization and also avoid thin spread of resources. This will induce the tribesmen to move towards these urban hubs, encourage enterprize development and job creation and also provide better security environment in a manageable area.
FATA Secretariat should arrange a Donors’ Conference on the initiative of TARUCCI and request the donors to re-orient their efforts towards strengthening of urban centres alone. FATA Secretariat should also ensure that the allocation under head of Local Government are not utilized for rural development as the Parliamentarians are investing huge resources allocated annually to them towards those areas.
The LG system proposed for FATA should be overhauled and structured at the Agency, Tehsil, Town (for urban hub) and Union Council level. There should be an Agency Council headed by a Nazim (or Chairman) followed by a Tehsil and a Union Council. Town Councils over urban hubs should be named as Municipal Committees. Furthermore, instead of exercise of arbitrary powers by the Governor in cases of suspension and dismissal of local government institutions such cases should be processed through a Local Government Commission comprising, amongst others, majority independent Members who are not likely to come under undue influence of the Parliamentarians or the Governor.
Political Parties and other stake holders should be fully involved in all decision regarding local governance. This can be done through a specially constituted Committee comprising heads of all political parties in FATA, amongst others. Regular bi-monthly meetings may be held for the purpose.
The Local Government apparatus in FATA should immediately commence work on the methodology for delimitations of wards, structure and by-laws for LGs. An Urban Management Frame-work for all the 14 hubs may be finalized and for that expertize of Consultant(s) may be hired to ensure quality and time-efficiency.
Till the formal launch of the LG system in FATA the 3 existing MCs of Parachinar, Sadda and Miranshah may be re-vitalized through a special package which ensures budgetary support on one hand and the development of their actual assets including increase in rent-rates etc. on the other.


Commissionerate of Municipal Administration Tamil Nado, “History of Municipal Administration”, http://cma.tn.gov.in//introduction.htm
DAI. “Pakistan FATA Capacity Buiding Program – Agency Development Plan 2010.” Draft, 2010.
FATA Development Authority. FATA Development Authority – Bridging the Development Divide. http:/www/fatada.gov.pk.
FATA Disaster Management Authority. FATA Disaster Management Authority. http:/www.fdma.gov.pk.
FATA Secretariat. Consultation meeting with FATA Parliamentarians on “FATA Local Government Regulation 2012”. Government, FISP – USAID, 2012, 9.
“FATA Local Government Regulations, 2012 (DRAFT).” 2012. fata.gov.pk.
Welcome to FATA. http://www.fata.gov.pk.
“Frontier Crimes Regulation 1901.”
Haider, Murtaza, and Badami G Madhar. “Urban & Local Governance challenges in Pakistan.” Environment and Urbanization Asia, 2010.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013
Kilroy, Austin. “The role of cities in post war economic recovery.”
Planning & Development Department FATA. Digest of Mega Projects. Government, FATA Secretariat, Government of Pakistan, Peshawar: FATA Secretariat, 2008, 29.
Planning & Development Department FATA. FATA Sustsinable Development Plan (2006-2015). Government, FATA Secretariat, Government of Pakistan, Peshawar: FATA Secretariat, 2006, 161.
PMU TARUCCI, FATA Secretariat. “FATA Urban Centres Project – Environmental and Social Management Plan.” Government, Administration, Infrastructure and Coordination, FATA Secretariat, 2013.
Punjab Local Government Act, 2013
Saleem, Saadia, and Mughees Ahmad. “Political and Administrative Structure of Local Bodies in Pakistan – A case study of City DIstrict Government Faisalabad.” Berkley Journal of Social Sciences 2, no. 6-7 (June-July 2012).
UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and South Pacific, Local Government in Asia and the Pacific: 
A Comparative Study, http://www.unescap.org/huset/lgstudy/country/pakistan/pakistan.html


Calculated Financial Implications of various sectors in 14 Urban Hubs
Urban Hub
Tech Edu
Dairy Dev.
Local Industry
Public Health
Khar, Bajaur
Gillanai, Mohmand
LandiKotal, Khyber
Kalaya, Orakzai
Ghiljo, Orakzai
Sadda, Kurram
Parachinar, Kurram
Miranshah, North
Mir Ali, North
Wana, South
Sarwakai, South
Darra Adam Khel, FR Kohat
Darazinda, FR DI Khan
Jandola, FR Tank

[2] FATA Secretariat, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, 2007, www.fata.gov.pk
[3] FATA Secretariat, FATA in Figures 2009. Annual, Planning and Development Department, FATA Bureau of Statistics, (Peshawar: Government Printing Press, 2010)
[4] FATA Secretariat, FATA Sustainable Development Plan 2006-15. (Peshawar: November 2006)
[5] FATA Secretariat, FATA in Figures 2009. Annual, Planning and Development Department, FATA Bureau of Statistics, (Peshawar: Government Printing Press, 2010
[6] FATA Secretariat, FATA Sustainable Development Plan 2006-15, (Peshawar: November 2006)
[7] FATA Secretariat, FATA Agriculture Statistics 2009-10, Report, Directorate of Agriculture, (Peshawar: 2010).
[8] Cost of Conflict in FATA, http://fata.gov.pk/files/costconflict.pdf accessed on 14 Oct 2013
[9] fata.gov.pk
[10] FATA Development Statistics 2012, Bureau of Statistics (FATA Cell), P&D Department FATA Secretariat, (Pages 117-121)
[11] History of FATA, FATA Secretariat official website, http://fata.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=85&Itemid=83 accessed on 16 Oct 2013
[12] FATA Development Statistics 2012, Bureau of Statistics (FATA Cell), P&D Department FATA Secretariat, (Page 124)
[13] ibid (Page 125)
[14]  Pakistan: IDP Population Movements and Patterns, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, http://www.internal-displacement.org/idmc/website/countries.nsf/(httpEnvelopes)/A9B4B77CF630AEADC125778C006AE001?OpenDocument accessed on 25 Nov 2013
[15] Conference report: Advancing policy implementation in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Sunday 24 – Wednesday 27 October 2010 | WP1048 (Wilton Park) https://www.wiltonpark.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/wp1048-report.pdf accessed on 14 Oct 2013
[16] TARUCCI booklet, fata.gov.pk/downloads
[17] TARUCCI booklet, fata.gov.pk/downloads
[18] FATA Secretariat A&C Department policy letter No. FS/PD(TARUCCI)/01-01/769-75 dated 15 Nov 2010
[19] Conference report: Advancing policy implementation in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) https://www.wiltonpark.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/wp1048-report.pdf accessed on 14 Oct 2013
[20] FATA Secretariat. FATA Sustainable Development Plan 2006-15.(Peshawar: November 2006)
[21] Government of Pakistan. Post Crisis Needs Assessment: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas. (Islamabad, September 2010)
[22] TARUCCI booklet, fata.gov.pk/downloads
[23] TARUCCI booklet
[24] FATA Annual Development Plans for FY 2011-12, 2012-13 & 2013-14 (provision from local component and for CFY under consideration – OWN CALCULATION)
[25] Understanding FATA: 2011, Naveed Ahmad AhmadShinwari, http://www.understandingfata.org/uf-volume-v/Understanding_FATA_Vol-V-11.pdf accessed on 22 Nov 2013
[26] FATA Secretariat, Monthly Progress Report on Foreign Funded Projects, Oct 2013
[28]http://www.pakistanmdtf.org/ accessed on 23 Nov 2013
[29] FATA Urban Centers Project (FUCP), The World Bank,  http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P125414/fata-urban-centers-project-fucp?lang=en accessed on 23 Nov 2013
[30] Kilroy, Austin, “The Role of Cities in Postwar Economic Recovery”, MIT and UNDP, December 2007.
[31] Shahnaz Arshad, Senior Urban Specialist, World Bank Pakistan
[32] Schedule I Project Description, grant agreement KP / FATA / Baluchistan Multi-Donor Trust Fund (FUCP) – Grant No. TF012150-PK
[33] Fata Urban Centers Project  MC Khar Bajaur Agency, Fata: Environmental And Social Management Plan
[34] ibid
[36] Amir, Intikhab, Urban Hub Project Finally Comes Alive in Bajaur, Dawn, 28 Jun 2012
[37] Mr Habibullah Khan-Secretary Ports & Shipping, Sahibzada Anis (late), Dr Fakhr e Alam Irfan-Principal Secretary to Governor, Mr Mutahir Zeb-Political Agent Khyber, Mr Islam Zaib-Political Agent South Waziristan, Mr Shahab Ali Shah-Chief Economist KP, Mr Khushal Khan-Political Agent Mohmand, Mr Shakeel Qadir Khan presently Government of Baluchistan, Dr Kazim Niaz-Secretary Local Government Baluchistan
[38] Commissionerate of Municipal Administration Tamil Nado, “History of Municipal Administration”, http://cma.tn.gov.in//introduction.htm accessed on 18 Oct 2013
[39] UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and South Pacific, Local Government in Asia and the Pacific: 
A Comparative Study, http://www.unescap.org/huset/lgstudy/country/pakistan/pakistan.html accessed on 21 Oct 2013
[40] Home and Tribal Affairs of the then NWFP Notification No. 16/206/SOTA.II(HD)/88 dated 5.10.1991
[41] Notification Secretary Basic Democracies and Local Government Department No.SOI(BD)8-1/50 dated 29.11.1961
[42] Sindh’s case for restoration of octrio, Dawn 13-10-2008, http://dawn.com/news/839315/sindh-s-case-for-restoration-of-octroi accessed on 10 Nov 2013
[43] Minutes of the meeting of AFS(E) with FA(FATA) dated 28 Sep 2007 read with Government of NWFP Local Government, Elections and Rural Development Department Letter No. AO-II/LCB/3-9/99 dated 28 Mar 1999
[44] Minutes circulated vide Director Local Government FATA letter No. DF(RD)TC/2009-10 dated 28 Jul 2010
[45] FATA Secretariat A&C Department Notification No. PD/TARUCCI/MCs/1-1/2010 dated 25 Nov 2010
[46] Mr Muhammad Zahoor, the then Director Local Government FATA (presently Project Director TARUCCI)
[48] http://fata.gov.pk/fo/fata_lgr_2012.pdf
[49] Section 1(3) of the draft FATA Local Government Regulation 2012,  http://fata.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=166&Itemid=154# accessed on 20 Dec 2013
[50] Sub-section (3) of Section 1 of the draft FATA LG Regulation, 2012 refers http://fata.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=166&Itemid=154 accessed on 20 Dec 2013
[51] Sub-section (3) of Section 1 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act 2013 (received from Mr Asghar Ali, Special Secretary LG KP, through email on 18 Dec 2013)
[52] Sub-Section (3) of Section 1 of the Punjab Local Government Act 2013, http://punjablaws.gov.pk/laws/2542.html accessed on 18 Dec 2013
[53] Section 17 of the Punjab Local Government Act 2013, http://punjablaws.gov.pk/laws/2542.html accessed on 21 Dec 2013