[Collective effort – no individual credit]
Detailed Report on Schools sector – timeline April 2018
Currently the total number of educational facilities (schools) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is as under:
Gender segregation in schools:
Overall enrollment in government schools is 4.381 million with the following details:
|Category of School||Enrollment (in Millions)||Percentage|
- Data of High and Higher Secondary Schools includes all junior classes in that school.
Total number of working teachers in government schools is 142,623 (91,606 male and 51,017 female), as per the following details:
|Primary (includes mosque)||48,345||63%||28,131||37%||76,476|
Census of Out Of School Children
In first ever census done by Elementary and Secondary Education Department in 2016-17 it was found out that currently 23% of the children of 5-16 years of age are out of school with 19% at primary level and 27% at secondary level are out of school. To meet the requirements for providing 100% access there is a need for additional 5,237 primary and 4,606 secondary schools (9,843 schools). Furthermore for the existing primary schools there is an additional need of 64,725 new teachers and to enroll out of school children there is an additional need of creation of posts of 31,420 primary teachers and 55,271 secondary teachers (total new teachers 86,691).
As envisaged in Education Sector Plan (ESP) 2015-20 the budgetary allocations have increased from Rs. 63.69 billion to Rs. 136.22 billion over a period of 5 years. The budget allocations for education sector from 2012-13 to 2017-18 are as follows:
|Share in Provincial Budget||21%||24%||23%||21%||23%||23%|
ESP have following two distinct streams with emphasis on right of student:
(i) The systemic changes at policy level for enhancing education quality
(ii) The provision of opportunities requiring finance intensive investments.
Progress on both is as under:
Student learning outcome – focus on teachers, textbooks and students
Annually 4.3 million Students provided free textbooks with a cost of Rs. 3.0 billion (all of them in public sector and some charities run schools).
Revision of textbook aligned with national curriculum and student learning objectives Outcomes has been done, 15/20 textbooks for classes 1-5, 15/24 textbooks for classes 6-8, 5/8 textbooks for class 9 and 5/8 textbooks for class 10 would have been revised by Mar 2019.
Attempt was also made for revision of the law governing the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Text Book Board to provide policy on teaching and learning material and textbook revision process and use of IT. However, in its last days the Provincial Assembly could not consider it for passage.
The remaining textbooks yet to be aligned are of subjects of Islamiat, Pakistan Studies – Generally where change is contested by various stakeholders.
Teacher recruitment through National Testing Service to induct best human resource. 40,000 merit-based qualified teachers recruited in past 04 years, recruitment of 17,000 teachers in process [at that time, April 2018] .
Qualification of Primary Teachers enhanced from FA/FSc to Bachelors as the initial qualification for appointment tapping into a larger and more qualified pool.
There is a notified 6 month Induction Program for New Teachers to improve Pedagogical content knowledge in respective subjects under which 15,000 new teachers will be trained in 2017-18 in Provincial Institute of Teacher Education (PITE).
Continuous Professional Development Program has started to address content knowledge and professional development deficiencies in existing teachers. 25,000 teachers are being trained through participation in monthly Professional Development Days in 8 districts.
In Annual Sample Assessments of teachers’ content knowledge from 2015-17, it was found out in sample assessment that the average score of the teachers in English was 40%, Maths 47% and Science 40%. This has led to the professional development program highlighted above.
In annual sample based assessment of teacher competency from 2015-17 it was found out that only 47% teachers fulfilled minimum teacher competency criteria. 95,000 teachers out of 142,623 trained on better understanding of the curriculum and newly developed textbooks through Directorate of Curriculum and Teacher Education (DCTE). 83,000 teachers are being trained since 2016 on English as medium of instruction in all the districts by British Council.
Assessment of students on Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) as against ROTA system. Class 5 (367,117 students) and class 8 (233,175 students) universal assessment conducted by BISE in all public sector schools in 2017-18. The latest was conducted in March 2018.
Assessment of Class 2 students learning outcomes through School Quality Management Initiative (SQMI) and feedback to improve students’ performance. This is a non-BISE exam/assessment just to, in-advance, assess retention of knowledge and teaching techniques. Item bank of MCQs for class 5 and 8 has been developed and updated leaving out chances of discretion and discouraging ROTA based learning.
Amendment is being made in Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Act (BISE Act) for Uniform system of education through uniform system of examinations. [This amendment has, for now, being put on hold due to agitation of employees of BISEs.]
Provision of opportunities requiring finance intensive investments
After 2013-14 efforts have been made to provide all necessary human resource to the education sector. Enhancement in the number of working teachers in previous 5 years is as follows:
After March 2014 Independent Monitoring Unit (IMU) provided authentic data regarding total missing facilities in all the schools of the province. From 2014-15 onwards Rs. 24.2 billion have been provided to PTCs involving local community and school administration through PTCs for missing school facilities as per following breakup:
|Amount (Rs In Million)||Amount (Rs In Million)||Amount (Rs In Million)||Amount (Rs In Million)||Amount (Rs In Million)|
|Boundary Walls New||4,446.47||594.78||389.13||241.75||5,672.13|
|Boundary Walls Raising||–||275.12||551.20||0.86||827.18|
211,000 community members have been trained for utilization of above mentioned PTC funds (Conditional Grant). Percentage of facilities provided to schools with missing facilities after the allocation of School Based Conditional Grants is as follows:
|Boundary Wall||82% (20,249)||91% (22,755)||93% (23,501)||97% (25,121)|
|Toilet||85% (21,090)||90% (22,670)||92% (23,291)||96% (25,107)|
|Water||70% (17,367)||75% (18,863)||79% (20,106)||85% (22,563)|
|Electricity||61% (15,253)||65% (16,427)||70% (17,797)||78% (20,621)|
Currently 2393 schools are without boundary walls, 2407 are without toilets, no water availability in 4951 schools and 6893 are without Electricity. Reasons include amongst others: hilly areas, old schools plans, distance of piped water supply and distance from transmission lines for example there is 52 % non-availability of toilets in Kohistan, 35 % in Torghar, 19 % Shangla and 14 % Battagram and the same percentages of other missing facilities in these districts.
To cover the remaining missing facilities, a 3 year detailed Medium Term Plan has been prepared by the department by the end of 2019-20 with a total cost of 16.6 billion. This plan includes construction of additional classrooms where enrollment is more, the remaining boundary walls, toilets, water and electricity.
An assessment was conducted by Elementary and Secondary Education Department in 2013-14, which indicated that around 1 million children do not have the basic furniture facility. This department took the initiative to provide furniture facility to each and every student of the public sector school. Since 2014-15 15,405 schools have been provided with new furniture (tablet chair, 2 and 3 seater desk bench, teacher chair) for 1.4 million students. In the financial year 2017-18, Rs. 3.124 billion have been earmarked for providing furniture to the remaining schools.
In order to make public school students conversant with modern IT skills and to create enabling environment in the public schools for teaching of computer science since 2013-14, 1,709 properly qualified Computer Science/Information Technology Teachers were recruited for providing quality education of Computer Science and I.T at the levels of Class IX, X, XI, & XII. 1170 new IT labs have also been established in selected High and Higher Secondary schools to create enabling environment in educational institutions for the teaching of Computer Science at the grass root level. This would in turn ensure a steady supply of students conversant in I.T. and related subjects to the institutions of higher learning
To address the access component in the education sector the present government since its inception also gave attention to the Establishment and Upgradation of New Schools wherever needed. Since 2013-14, a total of 2,355 schools have been newly established or upgraded. This includes 725 newly established primary schools, upgrading 551 primary schools to middle level, 512 middle schools to high level, 314 high schools to higher secondary level, conversion of 132 mosques schools into formal school system, and upgradation of 121 schools on non-developmental. 298 more schools are in the process of establishment/upgradation.
Through establishment of Independent Monitoring Unit in 2014 a comprehensive system of monitoring and data collection was introduced to check the teacher student attendance, missing facilities and other indicators for quality education. For this purpose 550 Data Collector Monitoring Assistants were recruited for carrying out monthly monitoring of all the schools through Android application with minimum human discretion. After the introduction of IMU there has been marked improvement in teacher and student attendance of all the districts of the province.
|Students Attendance Rate||75%||76%||77%||78%|
|Teacher Attendance Rate||83%||85%||87%||90%|
In March 2014 after its inception, IMU identified 1,125 non-functional schools in the province. All these schools have been made functional by providing teachers through appointment/transfers and other necessary administrative arrangements.
For sustainable monitoring mechanism on permanent basis Independent Monitoring Unit is being transformed into Independent Monitoring Authority through legislation.
In order to enable all children to receive quality education in terms of access and participation – irrespective of poverty, gender, religion, geographical location, disability, displacement, ethnic or social origin, language, political affiliation, etc. E&SED allocated PKR 1.3 billion during 2017-18, and PKR 2.9 billion for the year 2018-19. Current interventions include:
(i) Girls Stipend Programme (GSP): For inclusive education and to reduce gender disparity Girls Stipend has been introduced. For the year 2017-18 Rs. 1700 million has been dispensed to Girls Students from grade 6-10. The beneficiaries from this programme are 401, 287 girls students.
(ii) Iqra Farogh-e-Taleem Voucher Scheme (IFTVS): Over 41,083 children (around 50% girls) between the ages of 5-16 have been enrolled through this scheme. The objectives of Iqra Farogh-e-Taleem Voucher Scheme are: Providing access to quality education through strengthening the private educational institutions among marginalized families, ensure Universal Primary Education (UPE) in KP, sharing financial burden of parents of the out of school children through contribution in tuition fee, lessening the burden of students on government sector by encouraging private sector, developing cooperation through triangular coordination among the Government, community and Private sector. The target is to enroll a total of 240,000 out of school children in private educational institutions. So far, 41,086 children have been enrolled in six districts of KP since 2014.
(iii) Girls Community Schools (GCS): Elementary & Secondary Education Foundation (ESEF) establishes Girls community schools (GCS) to serve ‘out-of-school’ children belonging to families lacking access to primary schools. Girls’ community schools are located in space provided by communities. A teacher from community teaches and Village Education committees manage the school activities. They follow the government primary schools’ pay teachers’ honorarium. Over 91,000 children (around 65% girls) between the ages of 5-10 are enrolled in over 1,650 GCS. In the year 2017-18 more than 25,000 ‘out-of-school’ children will be enrolled in this program across KP.
(iv) New Schools Initiative (NSI): The New School Initiative is a special initiative of the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with the objective of enrolling “out-of-school” children aged 5-16 in areas where there are no government or private schools available. The target for this initiative is to enroll 12,500 out of school children through Public Private Partnership (PPP) in the year 2018-19.
(v) Sustainable Transition and Retention in Delivering Education: To address the challenge of non-availability of post-primary / middle schools transition and retention of students, E&SED is implementing this innovative program. STRIDE mainly aims at improving retention and transition rates of students identified through local level planning through second shift schooling. Initially, in the pilot phase the target of this intervention is 1800 students in 60 schools in Mardan and Nowshera. If proved successful this intervention will be scaled up to other district of the province.
(vi) Non-Formal/Adult Literacy centers in Jails: This intervention focuses rehabilitation and self-sufficiency of the prisoners, reduction of crime rate through educating prisoners to utilize prison time in useful, healthy and purposeful activities. So far, 3 centers out of 12 have been established in Mardan and Peshawar jails. Remaining 9 centers will be established in the financial year 2018-19.
(vii) Accelerated Learning Program (ALP): With a total target of 78,389 ‘Out of School Children’ by 2021, this program plans to enroll approximately 23,271 out of school children (OOSC) between the ages of 8-10 who have never been to school for primary level and 4,288 out of school children between the ages of 13-14 who have completed primary graduation, for the middle level during 2018-19.
In order to improve quality of education & learning outcomes, to enhance conducive learning environment and to improve governance in education sector, following interventions have been made in past 5 years:
(i) 6 Rooms Primary Schools: Before 2013-14, a primary school used to be of two rooms school, which were insufficient to accommodate 5 classes. In order to standardize all the primary schools in the province with sufficient facilities for 5 classes, a policy has now been formulated under which all new primary schools will be built on a standardized pattern. All the new primary schools are being constructed under the standardized program with a marked minimum area (2 Kanal) having 6 classrooms each. 126 (6 rooms) new primary schools have been completed under the new policy.
(ii) Teacher Incentive Program (TIP): Teacher Incentive Programme was started in 2016 to ensure that the hard work and efforts of the best teachers are adequately recognized by the Elementary & Secondary Education Department. The Incentive programme has resultantly created an environment of healthy competition among schools and teachers for better performance that will lead to overall improvement in the quality of education. According to the programme, best performing schools are identified on a criterion based on indicators measuring enrolment, student presence rate, teacher presence rate and the results of students appearing in the 9th & 10th BISE examinations. The breakdown of budget and program beneficiaries is as follows:
|Teacher Incentive Program||2015-2016||2016-2017|
|Budget allocation||Rs. 55 million||Rs. 110 million|
|Total schools to be rewarded||120||240|
|Total teachers rewarded||960||1920|
|Cash amount rewarded to Head Teacher||Rs. 100,000||Rs. 100,000|
|Cash amount rewarded to 7 school teachers||Rs. 50,000||Rs. 50,000|
(iii) Online Action Management System (OAMS): Was launched in December 2016 to bring uniformity and transparency in the actions taken against teachers who are on unauthorized leaves during school hours. This online system automatically generates disciplinary actions against teachers. If a teacher is found absent for the first time deduction in salary is made on second time a showcause notice is issued against the teacher along with salary deduction and third time absenteeism leads to removal from service after inquiry. In the previous two years, salary deductions have been made from 22,000 teachers, stoppage of two year increment have been imposed on 2400 teachers and 60 teachers have been proceeded for removal of on habitual absenteeism. This system is used on a monthly basis to rank districts on their percentage of resolved cases and poor performing districts are asked to provide explanations.
(iv) New Leave Policy: E&SED has also introduced a leave policy through a notification for all public schools to ensure that maximum number of teachers are available for teaching to the students at all times. According to the leave policy, head teacher of school with 2 -7 working teachers’ strength shall not grant casual leave to more than one teacher/staff on any working day. Similarly, schools with 8 -15 working teachers’ strength shall not grant casual leave to more than two teacher/staff on any working day while schools with more than 15 working teachers’ strength shall not grant casual leave to more than 10% of the total teachers/staff on any working day.
(v) School Quality Management Initiative (SQMI) was launched in February 2018 to improve the quality of teaching and learning in classrooms. The initiative mandates ASDEOs to visit schools, monitor, inspect and supervise critical areas of the school that impact teaching and learning processes. The system comprehensively and regularly evaluates the quality of education in public sector schools of KP. The ASDEO fill out a questionnaire that cover three areas of teaching and learning process, these include:
- Classroom Observation
- Syllabus Pacing
- Student assessments
SQMI assists in providing regular, timely feedback to teachers and head teachers for remedial actions. ASDEOs carry out unannounced but scheduled visits to schools in a manner that every primary school is covered quarterly.
(vi) School Based Budgeting (SBB): In order to ensure financial discipline, autonomy, transparency and effective control, school level budgeting and expenditure tracking is necessary. However, out of a total of 27,121 public sector schools, school-level budgeting and expenditure-tracking is restricted to 464 higher secondary schools and 2,158 high schools. Such facility is not available in respect of middle and primary schools. Elementary & Secondary Education Department has now introduced school-wise budgeting and expenditure-tracking system for all schools including primary and middle on a pilot basis in District Karak, starting from 2016-17. In 2017-18, the project is being extended to eight more districts.
(vii) Standardization of Higher Secondary Schools: The government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa intended to standardize all the 401 Higher Secondary Schools (HSS) across the province. The standardization process included state-of-the-art refurbishment of schools premises; provision of missing facilities such as electrification, water supply, group lavatories, furniture, and boundary walls; Classroom Supplies; Library Books; Sports Equipment; Science and IT Lab Equipment. It is pertinent to mention, that out of 401 Higher Secondary schools, 199 Higher Secondary Schools are being standardized by the provincial government through its own developmental budget whereas, 202 Higher Secondary Schools are being standardized through DFID supported program HUMQADAM by International Management Consultant (IMC). The selected schools are being renovated/refurbished with distinctive and visible theme, so that these could be identified with this thematic design/ color schemes. The objective of this initiative is to provide a conducive teaching and learning environment. Out of total 401 Higher Secondary Schools, 103 Higher Secondary Schools have been completed with provision of state of the art Science lab, Library, Computer lab, Standardized classrooms, remaining 42 will be completed at the end of 2018. In the second phase in 2018-19 remaining 260 schools will be standardized.
(viii) Provision of Play Areas: For providing conducive learning environment in public schools as per quality standards the government intends to provide play area in all the primary schools of the province. Out of 21,180 government primary schools, 8,000 schools have been provided with modern and spacious play areas in phase-I. In these play areas playing facilities like monkey bar, swing, see-saw etc. have been provided through parent teacher council (PTC) at the rate of Rs. 120,000/- per primary school where none of these facilities existed before.
(ix) Development of Playground: The government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa had undertaken range of initiative to improve school environment by enhancing sports and other allied facilities in schools all over the province. Under this initiative, 168 playgrounds have been identified for development and provision of sports facilities in the province. Out of total identified playgrounds, 150 playgrounds have been developed in High and Higher Secondary Schools throughout the province for better and conducive physical learning environment while remaining 18 playground at different level of completion.
(x) Facilities for better physical learning environment: 5000 schools have been provided with sports kits which includes the sports gear for the games of cricket, badminton, football, basketball and volleyball. This initiative aims to provide conducive physical learning environment to students through promotion of sports activity as these activities are perceived to infuse a sense of competition and sportsmen spirit among them. An amount of Rs. 100,000/- has been provided per school for procurement of sports kits through parent teacher council.
(xi) Educational Testing and Evaluation Agency (ETEA) Scholarships: Under this program government sponsors poor and talented students of class 7 to 12 for having education in elite educational institutions like Abbottabad Public School, Peshawar Public School, Fazl-e-Haq College Mardan,…etc. Expenses such as hostel fees, stationary, monthly fees, uniform, pocket money etc. are born by the provincial government through ES&ED at the cost of Rs. 241.22 Million per session.
(xii) The performance evaluation of teachers has been changed towards a more objective performance and efficiency based proforma including marks for teacher presence, teachers knowledge and application, supervision and control over students, knowledge of English and Urdu language, amongst others. This has replaced the traditional PER form applicable to all civil servants universally without taking into account customized and specialized outputs and outcomes.
(xiii) Cadet College for Girls: For providing better career opportunities to Girls students, first ever Girls Cadet College has been established in Mardan with initial intake of 200 female students costing Rs. 2.395 billion.
In order to provide Free and compulsory primary education, ‘Free and Compulsory Primary Secondary Education Act 2017’ was passed by Provincial Assembly under article 25(A) of the constitution of Pakistan for providing Free and Compulsory Education to all children of age 5 to 16. Rules are yet to be notified.
On the recommendations of a committee constituted for recommending changes in time tables and classification of curriculum, changes are being made in time tables and by clubbing the same subject classes along with provision of storage facilities in the classroom it is expected that the weight of school bags of the students of public schools will reduce to a great extent as per modern guidelines.
Keeping in view the seasonal variation in temperature, including extremity of weather, across different topographies of KP, white uniform has also been allowed in addition to militia uniform.
To regulate the private schools ‘The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Private Schools Regulatory Act-2017’ was passed by the Provincial Assembly and Notified by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Govt; on 09.06.2017.
[HRC No 14960-K of 2018]
Requirement of funds to fulfill encumbrance of Article 25-A
|Baseline Year 2016-17||Year 2020-21||Year 2025-26||Year 2030|
|Population of Age 5 to 16||3,590,638||3,350,025||7,582,822||4,009,997||3,741,283||7,751,280||4,603,728||4,295,227||8,898,955||5,285,368||4,931,189||10,216,557|
|Enrolment in Class 1 to 12||3,470,550||2,404,439||5,874,989||3,906,135||2,922,611||6,828,745||4,528,281||3,730,074||8,258,355||5,249,518||4,760,625||10,010,143|
|Enrolment in Class 1 to 12 (Public Schools)||2,402,796||1,870,829||4,273,625||2,757,264||2,230,998||4,988,262||3,274,764||2,847,382||6,122,146||3,889,393||3,634,061||7,523,454|
|OOSC of Age 5 to 16||570,651||1,137,182||1,707,833||103,863||818,672||922,535||75,447||565,153||640,600||35,850||170,564||206,414|
|Net Intake Rate to G-1||100%||86%||94%||100%||92%||96%||100%||94%||97%||100%||98%||99%|
|GER for Primary and Middle/High||Pri: 102%
|NER for Primary and Middle/High||Pri: 82%
|Effective Transition Rate (ETR)||Pri-L.Sec: 87%
|Survival Rate to Grade 5,10||G5: 70%
|Repetiton Rate of Classes 1 to 9||5.78%||3.87%||4.83%||5.28%||3.37%||4.33%||4.78%||2.87%||3.83%||4.28%||2.37%||3.33%|
|Number of Head Teachers||16,783||10,741||27,524||18,338||11,734||30,072||20,046||12,824||32,871||21,925||14,023||35,949|
|Number of Teachers||69,177||35,549||104,726||78,779||63,743||142,522||93,565||81,354||174,918||111,126||103,830||214,956|
|Number of Support Staff||27,525||17,253||44,778||30,075||18,848||48,923||32,877||20,600||53,476||35,959||22,525||58,484|
|Number of Primary Schools||13,537||8,642||22,179||14,653||9,354||24,007||15,861||10,125||25,986||17,168||10,960||28,128|
|Number of Middle Schools||1,480||1,131||2,611||1,666||1,273||2,939||1,875||1,433||3,308||2,110||1,613||3,723|
|Number of High Schools||1,417||778||2,195||1,595||876||2,470||1,795||986||2,781||2,020||1,109||3,130|
|Number of Higher Secondary Schools||349||190||539||424||231||655||516||281||796||627||341||968|
|Number of of Classrooms for Classes 1 to 12||69,395||42,050||111,445||96,228||60,182||156,410||122,405||76,665||199,070||152,449||95,571||248,020|
|Percentage of schools with satisfactory toilet facility||94%||97%||95%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%|
|Percentage of schools with adequate drinking water facility||79%||88%||82%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%|
|Percentage of schools with adequate boundary wall||95%||98%||96%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%||99%|
|Textbooks for Classes 1 to 12||50,792,155||59,285,637||72,761,885||89,416,465|
|Teaching Guide for Class 1 to 12||Data not available|
|Budget allocation (E&SE Total)||119 Billion||215 Billion||453 Billion||951 Billion|
|Budgetary Allocation 1 to12||103 Billion||205 Billion||430 Billion||903 Billion|
|(Percentage of annual education budget)||87%||95%||95%||95%|
|(Percentage of annual provincial budget)||23%||27%||30%||32%|
[** Prepared by K-ESP, acquired from Mr Shahzad Arif]
Taking 2016-17 as baseline with three 5-year cycles ending 2030, statistics show that if we are to reach 100 % in GER for primary & 90% in secondary classes by the year 2030, we require to have
(I) 8,425 additional Head Teachers [presently 27,524];
(II) 110,230 additional teachers [presently 104,726]
(III) 13,706 additional auxiliary staff [presently 44,778]
(IV) 5,949 additional primary schools [presently 22,179]
(V) 1,112 additional Middle Schools [presently 2,611]
(VI) 935 additional High Schools [presently 2,195]
(VII) 429 additional Higher Secondary Schools [presently 539]
(VIII) 136,575 additional classrooms for classes 1-12 [presently 111,445]
Considering budget allocation for FY 2016-17 as 119 Billion which is 23% of provincial budget, going at the rate of 27%, 30% and 32% of the provincial budget going to elementary education, the volume of money required is Rs 1600 Billion by the year 2030. [Rs 215 Billion in first five years, 453 Billion in next and Rs 951 Billion in the last].
Would the provincial government(s) be able to prioritize elementary education with same focus and pace and commit [and more importantly provide] these sums towards fulfillment of encumbrance of Article 25-A of the Constitution, is a question only time will answer.
Presentation to Mr Pervez Khattak, Chief Minister Khyber Pakhtunkhwa before end of term May 2018